Organisers (in alphabetical order):
Vasiliki Deligianni-Kouimtzi, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Michael Gebel, University of Bamberg, Germany
Marge Unt, Tallinn University, Estonia
The main objective of YOUNG-IN Working Group (WG) 1 on “Employment” is to collect and synthesize evidence of causes, enablers and barriers of young people’s disadvantaged labor market position and the medium and long-term consequences of individual labor market disadvantages.
Recent research on youth transitions has revealed that, despite achieving educational participation exceeding their male peers, young women see smaller returns for this investment in the labour market. The so called “gender revolution” in educational participation, with high educational achievements and labour market aspirations, voiced in the mid-90s, has failed to be reflected in workplaces nearly after 25 years later. Gender inequality has declined in labour market participation, thus, females have attained ‘membership in the club, but not yet equality within the club’ as large numbers of women are still working in lower quality and/or non-standard jobs and gender inequality in earnings and wages continues to be substantial in all countries despite of considerable policy interventions.
Previous research has shown that particularly family-related events and duties amplify disadvantages for women in their career. Thus, gender gaps in labour market outcomes should be analyzed together with gender gaps in care. There are also reversed relationships from employment careers on family formation and family life. Next to these interrelations, the reconciliation and subjective constructions of work and family are in the research focus. Against this background, the Madrid meeting of WG1 has a special focus on gendered lives and careers and aims to explore the interrelations of the two life domains —work and family— from different methodological and design perspectives. We call for contributions in three streams that focus on (1) longitudinal and life course perspectives, (2) multilevel perspectives and (3) qualitative and mixed method perspectives. Streams will not run in parallel but consecutively in order to fertilize debates across methodological approaches.
YOUNG-IN aims at generating transdisciplinary knowledge. Therefore, we invite contributions from a variety of social sciences fields such as sociology, psychology, political science, economics, etc. YOUNG-IN also promotes the use of different methodologies, for which reason we invite contributions from quantitative, qualitative and mixed method research. YOUNG-IN focuses on comparative research to better understand how individual life courses are embedded in context. Next to single country studies we welcome studies comparing a few countries or many countries. Studies can be focused on European countries, yet comparative studies including non-European countries are also encouraged because this creates more variations in contexts and opportunities to learn about role of contextual factors. In all streams papers are also encouraged that look at issues of intersectionality in terms of interactions of gender with other dimensions of social inequality such as migration background, education disadvantages, disadvantaged family backgrounds, etc.
Stream 1: Longitudinal and life course perspectives on gendered interrelations of work and family
In this stream, we invite papers using quantitative longitudinal microdata from panel studies or quantitative retrospective life history studies that analyze the individual-level dynamics of gendered interrelationships of work and family. Applying methods of panel data analysis, event history analysis and sequence data analysis, research should address one of the following issues for women or women in comparison to men in terms of gender inequality:
- Effects of family events (e.g. marriage/divorce, childbirth and care, care for adult family members) on women’s employment and work careers and wages
- Effects of employment and work events/careers on leaving parental home and family formation processes
- Effects of family and/or work events/careers on the gendered division of housework and care work
- Patterns of employment/work sequences and family career sequences and their interrelations
- Cumulative effects across the life course: Effects of work/family events/sequences in young adulthood on later life outcomes
Stream 2: Multilevel perspectives on women’s employment chances and work conditions
In this stream, we invite papers applying quantitative multilevel analysis of comparative microdata (e.g. EQLS, ESS, EU-SILC, EU-LFS, EWCS, GGS, ISSP, WVS, etc.) to investigate the role of macro-contextual factors on women’s work and family situation next to individual and family level factors. Macro-contextual factors are cultural, institutional and structural context conditions that can vary across countries, regions, and/or time. Particularly, studies on the role of policies, especially gender and family related policies are welcome. Macro-contextual factors can be either studied using an indicator-based approach or typology/regime-based approach. Both macro-micro effects and cross-level interactions (e.g. with education, social origin, migration background, marital and parenthood status, attitudes, etc.) are of interest. The work and family situation could be studied for the group of women, subgroups of women or for women in comparison to men capturing gender inequality. Research should address one or more of the following outcome variables: labor force participation; job quality including wage differentials & reconciliation of work and family; or attitudes towards work/family/gender roles.
Stream 3: Qualitative and mixed method perspectives on gendered lives and careers
In this stream, we invite papers applying qualitative or mixed methods to analyzed gendered lives and careers. More specifically, we are welcoming presentations on gender identities and life choices, gender and the reconciliation of family and working life, the experience of gender in the private and public spheres. Contributions are welcome that focus on gender not so much as a statistical variable exploring sex-differences, but as a socially constructed factor shaping young people’s experience, social position and life decisions. The papers can be single county analysis, but comparative qualitative and/or mixed method tracking individuals and their constrained agency, capabilities and preferences are especially welcomed.